PANs

Planning Advisory Notices (PAN) are designed to educate the many stakeholders of the telecommunications industry including tower owners, carriers, broadcasters, general contractors, and regulators. PAN’s are intended to convey information on various subjects to raise awareness of the standards, regulations, codes and other applicable best practices related to the subjects. PAN’s are never intended by the authors, editors, or publishers to take the place of the proper application of standards, regulations, codes or other applicable best practices that apply to the subject matter. PAN’s are intended to help the reader become aware of some of the requirements associated with each subject and where to find some of the applicable information. PAN’s have been used as a part of a comprehensive training program to help raise awareness, but they should never be solely relied upon. It is the hope of the authors, editors and publishers that the awareness created by the PAN’s leads to an increase of quality allowing work to be performed in a safe manner while allowing for efficiency that comes from proper training and understanding. Readers are expected to use their best judgement when applying information supplied in the PAN’s to specific circumstances and conditions. 

These documents are not a standards. These documents only represent the comments and opinions of the authors and is not intended to supersede, modify or interpret any statute, rule, regulation or other industry or TIA Standard. The publication of these documents does not represent the position or endorsement of TIA or TIF.

A Safe Job Site Is No Accident

Anchor Bolts Height Matters

ANSI-TIA-222

Antenna Installations Mounts and Configurations

As networks are upgraded for 5G, End Users must consider whether their new or existing mounts can withstand the changes to increased quantity, weight, and size of equipment. To evaluate these factors it is vital to understand (i) how a mounts’ design capacity is determined; (ii) how the design capacity is affected by the installation condition; (iii) maintenance considerations; (iv) ANSI/TIA-222-H; and (v) other code-based requirements for mounts. Additional discussion topics include:

  • How increased Effective Projected Area (“EPA”) impacts mount capacity
  • Engineering interpretation of published mount capacities
  • Mismatch in Mount Analysis and Construction Drawings
  • Structural Analysis vs. Mount Analysis scope
  • An engineer’s approach to ensuring code-compliance

Capstan Hoists

Capstan hoists, or a “Cathead”, is utilized to make the lifting of loads easier and more productive. There are many applications and multiple industries that use the Capstan Hoists; however, this PAN will focus on the increased use by the telecommunications industry and the different applications and its mounting devices. Note: OSHA Compliance directive CPL 02-01-056 Capstan hoists are not designed to lift personnel.

  • Proper mounting and Rigging
  • Mechanical Advantage (rope turns on drum)
  • Proper operations
    • Capstan mounting options
      • Trailer hitch
      • Pole
    • Foot operated control
  • Training

Crane Standard

An introduction to OSHA’s educational initiatives and compliance programs. Focus and attention are given to OSHA’s FAQ pages which contain valuable information on OSHA regulations and specific industry requirements. Important updates to the crane standard were made in 2010; a list of important revisions and additions are listed. Discussion of the 2010 crane standard emphasizes three (3) prevailing issues in the industry:

  • Awareness and proper procedures when powerline hazards are present
  • Developing a proper lift plan
  • Review of the term “controlling entity” and examples of when a contractor will be considered a controlling entity on site.

Equip Exposure

FAA-FCC Lighting

Horizontal Lifelines

Insurance

Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWP), Part I

A review of best practices for the use of Mobile Equipment Work Platforms (“MEWP”) within the telecommunications industry. MEWP’S are an incredible tool that can be applied in the telecommunications industry when used properly for a scope of work by a competent person(s) who understand their effective uses, training requirements, and proper inspection and maintenance for the site-specific conditions. There are several considerations an employer should evaluate when renting a MEWP. Further discussion include:

  • A review of considerations that are often overlooked when utilizing a MEWP which cause significant stress in the field
  • Standards that apply to the use of MEWP’S
  • Training required to operate a MEWP
  • Performance and maintenance considerations. 

Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWP), Part II

There are different classifications of Mobile Elevated Work Platforms or MEWPs. Although sometimes mischaracterized as bucket trucks there are many qualities that differentiate a MEWP from a bucket truck. Discussion topics include:

  • Definition of a MEWP
  • Definition of a Bucket Truck
  • How to differentiate between a MEWP and a Bucket Truck
    • Rotating and articulating booms vs rotating and extensible booms
  • Types of Bucket Trucks
    • Insulated Booms; description and testing requirements
    • Non-Insulated Booms; description and testing requirements
  • Inspecting Bucket Trucks
  • Operator qualifications and training
  • PPE for operating MEWPs and Bucket Trucks

Mounts and Inspections

Prior to climbing onto any antenna mount, a thorough inspection of a mount’s condition and development of a fall protection plan should be conducted. This includes checking the mount’s physical integrity, determining if it is rated to support man loads, and evaluating whether the mount has capacity to support anchorage for fall protection. This PAN provides guidance on how to evaluate the above and what steps to take if there are any deficiencies in the mount’s condition. Other topics discussed:

  • Items to consider during a physical inspection of an antenna mount.
  • Determining a mount’s man load and anchorage rating
  • How increased equipment weight affects man load and anchorage ratings
  • Fall protection plans
  • Collection of mount geometry data
  • Mount manufacturer compliance with AISC and AWS requirements
  • Compliance with TIA 222 maintenance requirements

Mount Selection Considerations

The increasing demand on properly functioning telecommunication infrastructure elicits the need for innovative mount solutions. Selecting high-quality reliable mounts that are compatible with the supporting structure and connection conditions, while protecting wire rope safety climbs is imperative. There are certain qualities that products from top-tier manufacturer possess that the End User should consider when selecting a new mount. Factors that should be considered include:

  • Considerations to make when selecting a new mount
    • Constructability
    • Structural Sufficiency
    • Serviceability
  • Ensuring that the selected mount manufacturer designs mounts that are code-compliant
    • ANSI/TIA 222
    • ANSI/TIA 322
    • TIA 5053
    • ASTM
    • AISC

As increased equipment loads are applied to existing mounts throughout the telecommunications industry, engineers are left with the decision to modify or replace the mounts to increase capacity. Engineers must also ensure that the modification or replacement is compliant with applicable standards. The following factors should be considered when determining the most feasible option for the End User:

  • Construction Considerations
    • Equipment reinstallation and temporary network outages
    • Adjacent equipment
    • Previous modifications and inspections
  • Site Acquisition
    • Leased area and site aesthetics
    • Structural capacity of supporting structure
    • Site geographic location
  • Site Design
    • Mount and RF design optimization
    • Future site growth and maintenance requirements
  • Necessary involvement amongst various stakeholders

PPE Hierarchy

RF Safety

Radiofrequency Energy (“RF”) emitted by telecommunications antennas allows for efficient transmission of data; however, prolonged close proximity to RF sources can result in dangerously high exposure to radiation. This PAN discusses how to identify risks and develop a safety plan to keep employees safe when working near RF-emitting sources. Detailed topics also discussed are:  

  • Potential Effects of RF Exposure
    • Quasi-Optical Resonance
    • Human Resonance
    • Sub-Resonance
  • How to assess site hazards
    • Antenna types and RF direction
    • Supporting structures and safe access routes
  • RF Plan to avoid overexposure
    • Interpreting RF meter readings
    • RF PPE
    • Over-exposure symptoms and mitigation

Rigging 101

There are a series of rigging fundamental questions to be answered prior to beginning any load lifting activities. Individuals assigned to various load lifting tasks should, at a minimum, understand basic rigging fundamentals before utilizing hardware such as shackles, hooks, links, rings, wire rope, blocks, and slings. Knowledge of these fundamentals is critical to ensuring that safe lifting practices are implemented.

  • Fundamentals; Key Questions for Hardware and Slings
    • Has a rigging plan been developed?
    • What is the rigging classification (I -IV)?
    • Equipment, inspection, and utilization
  • Responsibility Matrix; Who is responsible for rigging and lifting activities?
  • Has a communication plan been established (Hand signal basics)?
  • Knowledge of the proper use and inspection of lifting equipment
  • Unusual environment and special concerns

Rigging Hardware 101

There are a series of rigging fundamental questions to be answered prior to beginning any load lifting activities. Individuals assigned to various load lifting tasks should, at a minimum, understand basic rigging fundamentals before utilizing hardware such as shackles, hooks, links, rings, wire rope, blocks, and slings. Knowledge of these fundamentals is critical to ensuring that safe lifting practices are implemented.

  • Fundamentals; Key Questions for Hardware and Slings
    • Has a rigging plan been developed?
    • What is the rigging classification (I -IV)?
    • Equipment, inspection, and utilization
  • Responsibility Matrix; Who is responsible for rigging and lifting activities?
  • Has a communication plan been established (Hand signal basics)?
  • Knowledge of the proper use and inspection of lifting equipment
  • Unusual environment and special concerns

Rigging Loads And Forces

A fundamental component of developing a telecommunications structure rigging plan is to ensure that proper planning is conducted in accordance with ANSI/ASSP 10.48. Therefore, the focal point of this PAN will be the planning and execution involved in determining the Gross Load and Forces that may be generated throughout the rigging system on both the rigging components and the structure.

  • Determining Gross Load
  • How does Gross Loads turn into Forces?
  • Scope analysis and how it relates to rigging systems and Gross Load considerations
  • How Gross Load and Forces influence the rigging plan
  • Standard charts and tag line multipliers
    • ANSI/ASSP A10.48, Appendix A-13(f)
  • How might field conditions effect on the plan?
    • SAUCE – Stop, Assess, Understand, Communicate, Execute

Risk Categorization

Roles And Responsibilities

Rope And Rigging Compatibility

Overview of regulations, standards, and best practices for rigging with synthetic ropes. The PAN will cover the basics of rope selection, characteristics, and usage, which is a good starting point for training, sound operational procedures, and equipment selection. The ANSI/ASSP 10.48 standard and or others listed should be consulted as applicable to the specific work environment.

  • Applicable Standards:
    • ANSI 10.48;
    • ASME B30.26 & B30.30;
    • Cordage Institute CI 1401;
    • ASTM F1740; &
    • ISO 16625
  • Synthetic Ropes and Slings
  • Shackles and Blocks
  • D/d Ratio
  • Sheaves for Synthetic Rope vs Wire Rope
  • Industry best practices

Rope Basics

Synthetic ropes are one of the industry’s most widely utilized and versatile products. This PAN reviews the individual characteristics associated with the different types of synthetic rope. Additionally, guidance on best practice information is provided, regardless of rope function.

  • Definitions:
    • Minimum Breaking Strength (“MBS”)
    • Average Breaking Strength (“ABS”)
    • Breaking Strength (“BS”)
    • Factory Termination
    • Safety Factor
    • Splice
    • Working Load Limit (“WLL”)
  • Rope Types, Benefits, and Detractors
    • Double Braid
    • Three-strand Twisted Braid
    • Static Kernmantle
  • Terminations
  • Effect of Knots on the Rope
  • Storage, Cleaning, and Inspection

Rope Inspection And Retirement

Review of best practices and safe operations associated with the selection, care and maintenance, inspection, repair, and retirement of synthetic rope. Review of the fundamental principal that, as with all PPE, there must be a documented plan and or policy for the proper management of ropes to ensure safe operating practices are followed.  

  • Reference Standards:
  • Cordage Institute CI 2001-04;
    • ANSI/ASSP 10.48;
    • NFPA 1983-17; &
    • ASTM 1740 (rev 2018)
  • Best Practices For
    • Assignment of supervisory responsibility
    • Documented processes and procedures
    • Training for staff
    • Record keeping
    • Establishment of retirement criteria;
    • Schedule of inspection
  • Inspection Types
    • Tactile, Visual
  • Inspection Results
    • Excessive tension/shock, cutting, hockles, twists, kinks, etc
  • Rope Retirement and Record Keeping

S.A.U.C.E. – Stop, Assess, Understand, Communicate, and Engage

The telecommunications industry is a rapidly evolving sector which places a high degree of pressure on all Stakeholders to maintain deployment schedules and maintain telecommunications infrastructure. SAUCE, or Stop-Assess-Understand-Communicate-Engage, is an important procedure for Stakeholders (particularly Contractors) to ensure that high-quality work is performed. Following the SAUCE procedure may lower the risk of injury to site personnel, prevent incorrect or subpar installations, and increased accountability for all Stakeholders. Additional discussion topics include:

  • Escalation hierarchy is subdivided into two parts, internal escalation procedures and amongst Stakeholders
  • When a hazard is observed, or work would create a future hazard Contractors should utilize SAUCE
  • Multiple real-world examples are discussed
    • Discussion of hazards that were present, or created, and an explanation of how SAUCE could have mitigated these issues

Slip Slice Monopoles

Step Bolts

Sunflower Effect

When apparent leaning (or visible camber) is present in a monopole tower, there is a high likelihood that it is caused by the “Sunflower Effect” due to thermal expansion of the steel. This PAN explains how the sun’s position, cloud cover, and ambient temperatures can all influence a monopole’s camber throughout the day, along with affecting other tower components such as safety climb systems and coax. Other topics discussed:

  • Thermal expansion in monopoles vs. other supporting structures
  • Effects on safety climb wire tension
  • Risk mitigation solutions caused by the “Sunflower Effect”
  • Antenna tilt effects on performance
  • Safety Equipment Manufacturers Consensus (SEMC) Document
  • Determining if a ‘leaning’ monopole is due to the “sunflower effect”

Telecommunications Infrastructure Quality

The Safety Climb System

TIA-322 And ANSI-A10.48

TIA-TSB-5053

Topography

Site specific factors such as geographic location, elevation, and surrounding terrain can greatly impact the wind force applied to a structure. Various methods may be used to determine the topographic factor caused by the wind speed-up effect. Understanding when topographic features are present and which methodologies to follow will ensure the most accurate results when calculating the wind force for a specific site. See additional topics:

  • Topographic Features
  • Method 1 – Simplified Topographic Factor Procedure
    • ANSI/TIA-222-H Section 2.6.6.2.1
  • Method 2 – Rigorous Topographic Factor Procedure
    • ANSI/TIA-222-H Section 2.6.6.2.2
  • Method 3 – Site Specific Topographic Procedure
    • ANSI/TIA-222-H Section 2.6.6.2.3
  • Reduction Factors
  • Accuracy as it relates to cost

Tower Maintenance And Corrosion Prevention

Corrosion creates a safety hazard and possibly an unaesthetic appearance of the structure. This PAN will analyze effective methods for combating corrosion including field treatment, proper preparation of the structure, and cost-effective user-friendly cathodic protection process.

  • Why and how Corrosion occurs
  • Corrosion photographic examples
  • Application of Film Galvanizing Product
    • ASTM A780 standard requirement

Twist Plumb Tension

Welding Basics

The American Welding Society (“AWS”) is tasked with developing standards for welders in the United States. It is critical to understand that failure to adhere to the standards established by AWS may lead to weld and structure integrity issues and/or potentially unsafe practices affecting personnel.

  • Standards, Codes, & Procedures
  • Fabrication Requirements
  • Roles and Responsibilities
    • Engineer Responsibilities
    • Certified Weld Inspector (“CWI”)
    • Contractors / Fabricators
    • Weld Procedure Qualification Specification Process (“WPS”)
  • Single-V- Groove Butt Joint
  • Material Control
  • Summary and Conclusion

Welding Discontinuities and Defects

Overview of welding codes, standards, and specifications as they apply to proper welding design, performance, and inspection. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the basics of welding discontinuities and defects to assist in the interpretation and better understanding of a Certified Weld Inspection (“CWI”) report.

  • List of and Photographic Examples of Typical Weld Discontinuities
  • Summary and Conclusion

Welding Inspection

An explanation of the role of a Certified Weld Inspector (“CWI”) and the inspection activities required to ensure a successful project and a passing CWI Report.

  • References
    • AWS D1.1
    • The American Institute of Steel Construction (“ASIC”)
      • Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
    • ANSI/ASIC 360-10
      • C-N5.4-1 Inspection Tasks
  • Qualifications of Procedures and Welder Steps
  • Inspection Tasks During Welding C-5.4-2
  • Welding Consumables; Control and Handline
  • Proper Welding Technics
  • Inspection Tasks After Welding C-N5.4-3
  • Summary and Conclusion

Wire Rope Safety Climb

Archived

ANSI-TIA 1019-A-2012

ANSI-TIA-1019 A Standard: Roles in the Construction Process

Cant Rush Building A Telecom Site

Classification of Tower Structures

FAA Aviation Obstruction Lighting ‘Tower Lighting’

Protecting Guyed Tower Anchors Against Corrosion

Who Is The TIA?


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